Crash Avoidance Principles

The principle of “Crash Avoidance” is a safety system that is designed to prevent even the possibility of a collision. The key elements of “Crash Avoidance” are: the use of “exclusively dedicated tracks for high speed passenger rail service”, which completely exclude freight and commuter rail being on the same tracks; no at-grade crossings of any sort; and an “Automatic Train Control” (ATC) system, which automatically detects train positions and controls the operation of the system.

Dedicated Track for High-Speed Passenger Rail Service

expand

A dedicated track completely separates the high-speed railway from freight traffic pulled by heavy locomotives and from conventional passenger traffic with lower braking performance, thus eliminating the risk of collisions with freight or conventional passenger trains.
Dedicated tracks are completely level crossing free. With no level crossings, collisions with any road vehicles including tank lorries loaded with hazardous or flammable substances can be completely eliminated.

PAGE TOP

Automatic Train Control System

expand

The ATC system prevents high-speed passenger train-on-train collisions and excessive speeds.
The advanced ATC system exercises complete control over the entire dedicated track and every operating train, preventing train-on-train collisions and excessive speed.
Since the ATC is designed specifically for the use on dedicated passenger tracks, without considering interoperability, its structure is quite simple in terms of hardware, software and the handling of train crew.
The ATC system of Tokaido Shinkansen in Japan has prevented train-on-train collisions and maintained safe and reliable high-speed passenger rail service for fifty years.

Automatic Train Control System

PAGE TOP

N700A

expand

Tokaido Shinkansen

Operating Section Tokyo – Shin-Osaka
Inauguration Oct. 1964
Operating Distance 552.6 km
Maximum Operating Speed 285 km/h
Minimum Travel Time 2 hours 22 minutes
Trains / day 365 (Including extra services)
* Including direct services between
Tokaido and Sanyo Shinkansen
Stations 17

PAGE TOP

N700-8cars

expand

Sanyo Shinkansen

Operating Section Shin-Osaka – Hakata
Inauguration Mar. 1972 (Shin-Osaka – Okayama)
Mar. 1975 (Okayama – Hakata)
Operating Distance 622.3 km
Maximum Operating Speed 300 km/h
Minimum Travel Time 2 hours 21 minutes
Trains / day 268 (Excluding extra services)
* Including direct services between
Tokaido and Sanyo Shinkansen or Sanyo
and Kyushu Shinkansen
Stations 19

PAGE TOP

E5

expand

Tohoku, Joetsu Shinkansen

Operating Section Tokyo – Shin-Aomori (Tohoku)
Tokyo – Niigata (Joetsu)
Inauguration Jun. 1982 (Omiya – Morioka; Tohoku)
Nov. 1982 (Omiya – Niigata; Joetsu)
Mar. 1985 (Ueno – Omiya; Tohoku, Joetsu)
Jun. 1991 (Tokyo – Ueno; Tohoku, Joetsu)
Dec. 2002 (Morioka – Hachinohe; Tohoku)
Dec. 2010 (Hachinohe – Shin-Aomori; Tohoku)
Operating Distance 713.7 km (Tohoku)
333.9 km (Joetsu)
Maximum Operating Speed 320 km/h (Tohoku)
240 km/h (Joetsu)
Minimum Travel Time 2 hours 59 minutes (Tohoku)
1 hours 37 minutes (Joetsu)
Trains / day 177 (Tohoku)
78 (Joetsu)
* Excluding extra services
Stations 23 (Tohoku)
10 (Joetsu)
* Some stations are overlapped

PAGE TOP

E7/W7

Hokuriku Shinkansen

Operating Section Tokyo – kanazawa
Inauguration Jun. 1982 (Omiya – Takasaki)
Mar. 1985 (Ueno – Omiya)
Jun. 1991 (Tokyo – Ueno)
Oct. 1997 (Takasaki – Nagano)
Mar. 2015 (Nagano-Kanazawa)
Operating Distance 450.5 km
Maximum Operating Speed 260km/h
Minimum Travel Time 2 hours 28 minutes
Trains / day 118(Excluding extra services)
* Including Tsurugi
Stations 18
* Some stations are overlapped

PAGE TOP

800

expand

Kyushu Shinkansen

Operating Section Hakata – Kagoshima-Chuo
Inauguration Mar. 2003
(Shin-Yatsushiro – Kagoshima-Chuo)
Mar. 2011
(Hakata – Shin-Yatsushiro)
Operating Distance 288.9 km
Maximum Operating Speed 260 km/h
Minimum Travel Time 1 hour 17 minutes
Trains / day 127 (Excluding extra services)
* Including direct services between Sanyo
and Kyushu Shinkansen
Stations 11

PAGE TOP

700T

expand

Taiwan High Speed Rail

Operating Section Nangang – Zuoying
Inauguration Jan. 2007 (Banqiao – Zuoying)
Mar. 2007 (Taipei – Banqiao)
Jul. 2016 (Nangang – Taipei)
Operating Distance 349.5 km
Maximum Operating Speed 300 km/h
Minimum Travel Time 1 hour 45 minutes
Trains / day 198
(Maximum, excluding extra services)
Stations 12

PAGE TOP

Advantages of the Crash Avoidance Principle

Series N700 Shinkansen
(Large Capacity)
European high-speed railways
(Small Capacity)
*example taken from actual rolling stock

The principle of crash avoidance not only ensures the all-important need for safety on high-speed railways, but also contributes greatly towards the efficient operation of high-speed rail:

1.Energy efficiency
Rolling stock can be made lighter because there is no need to consider the possibility of collision against heavy locomotives. Lighter vehicles consume much less energy and thus the tracks require less maintenance.
2.Frequency
With only high-speed trains on the tracks, frequency of service can be increased to accommodate grow in ridership over time, for example shorting head ways from 30 minutes in 1964 to 4 minutes in 2014, or increasing trains per day from 60 in 1964 to 323 in 2014 in Tokaido Shinkansen.
3.Passenger capacity
Crash Avoidance standards are not restricted by old standards, thus the rolling stock can have a larger cross section enabling a higher passenger capacity.

Dedicated Track for High-Speed Passenger Rail Service

A dedicated track completely separates the high-speed railway from freight traffic pulled by heavy locomotives and from conventional passenger traffic with lower braking performance, thus eliminating the risk of collisions with freight or conventional passenger trains.
Dedicated tracks are completely level crossing free. With no level crossings, collisions with any road vehicles including tank lorries loaded with hazardous or flammable substances can be completely eliminated.

Automatic Train Control System

The ATC system prevents high-speed passenger train-on-train collisions and excessive speeds.
The advanced ATC system exercises complete control over the entire dedicated track and every operating train, preventing train-on-train collisions and excessive speed.
Since the ATC is designed specifically for the use on dedicated passenger tracks, without considering interoperability, its structure is quite simple in terms of hardware, software and the handling of train crew.
The ATC system of Tokaido Shinkansen in Japan has prevented train-on-train collisions and maintained safe and reliable high-speed passenger rail service for fifty years.

N700A

Tokaido Shinkansen

Operating Section Tokyo – Shin-Osaka
Inauguration Oct. 1964
Operating Distance 552.6 km
Maximum Operating Speed 270 km/h
Minimum Travel Time 2 hours 25 minutes
Trains / day 323 (Excluding extra services)
* Including direct services between
Tokaido and Sanyo Shinkansen
Stations 17

N700-8cars

Sanyo Shinkansen

Operating Section Shin-Osaka – Hakata
Inauguration Mar. 1972 (Shin-Osaka – Okayama)
Mar. 1975 (Okayama – Hakata)
Operating Distance 644.0 km
Maximum Operating Speed 300 km/h
Minimum Travel Time 2 hours 22 minutes
Trains / day 271 (Excluding extra services)
* Including direct services between
Tokaido and Sanyo Shinkansen or Sanyo
and Kyushu Shinkansen
Stations 19

E5

Tohoku, Joetsu Shinkansen

Operating Section Tokyo – Shin-Aomori (Tohoku)
Tokyo – Niigata (Joetsu)
Inauguration Jun. 1982 (Omiya – Morioka; Tohoku)
Nov. 1982 (Omiya – Niigata; Joetsu)
Mar. 1985 (Ueno – Omiya; Tohoku, Joetsu)
Jun. 1991 (Tokyo – Ueno; Tohoku, Joetsu)
Dec. 2002 (Morioka – Hachinohe; Tohoku)
Dec. 2010 (Hachinohe – Shin-Aomori; Tohoku)
Operating Distance 713.7 km (Tohoku)
333.9 km (Joetsu)
Maximum Operating Speed 320 km/h (Tohoku)
240 km/h (Joetsu)
Minimum Travel Time 2 hours 59 minutes (Tohoku)
1 hours 37 minutes (Joetsu)
Trains / day 177 (Tohoku)
78 (Joetsu)
* Excluding extra services
Stations 23 (Tohoku)
10 (Joetsu)
* Some stations are overlapped

800

Kyushu Shinkansen

Operating Section Hakata – Kagoshima-Chuo
Inauguration Mar. 2003
(Shin-Yatsushiro – Kagoshima-Chuo)
Mar. 2011
(Hakata – Shin-Yatsushiro)
Operating Distance 288.9 km
Maximum Operating Speed 260 km/h
Minimum Travel Time 1 hour 17 minutes
Trains / day 125 (Excluding extra services)
* Including direct services between Sanyo
and Kyushu Shinkansen
Stations 11

700T

Taiwan High Speed Rail

Operating Section Taipei – Zuoying
Inauguration Jan. 2007 (Banqiao – Zuoying)
Mar. 2007 (Taipei – Banqiao)
Operating Distance 345 km
Maximum Operating Speed 300 km/h
Minimum Travel Time 1 hour 36 minutes
Trains / day 196
(Maximum, excluding extra services)
Stations 8

E7/W7

Hokuriku Shinkansen

Operating Section Tokyo – kanazawa
Inauguration Jun. 1982 (Omiya – Takasaki)
Mar. 1985 (Ueno – Omiya)
Jun. 1991 (Tokyo – Ueno)
Oct. 1997 (Takasaki – Nagano)
Mar. 2015 (Nagano-Kanazawa)
Operating Distance 450.5 km
Maximum Operating Speed 260km/h
Minimum Travel Time 2 hours 28 minutes
Trains / day 118(Excluding extra services)
* Including Tsurugi
Stations 18
* Some stations are overlapped